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The world famous Potala Palace is located on "Moburi (Red) Mountain", to the west of old Lhasa. It is a huge treasure house for materials and articles of Tibetan history, religion, culture and arts. The Palace is widely known for the precious sculptures, murals, scripture, Buddha figures, murals, antiques, and religious jewelry treasured up, they are of great cultural and artistic value. In 1994, the Potala Palace was declared the United Nations World Cultural Heritage site.It was originally built in the 640's, during the reign of King Songtsan Gampo.
The 13-story palace stands 117 metres high and has over 1,000 rooms. It covers an area of 130,000 square metres. The entire building is made of stone and wood, with walls averaging 3 metres thick.
The Red Palace contains various chapels and mausoleums for previous Dalai Lamas. The 5th Dalai Lama's mausoleum is in the west part of the palace and is 5-storeys high. His enormous Chorten is gold-covered and inlaid with diamonds, pearls, turquoise, agate and coral. The whole structure stands 14 metres high.
The White Palace contains the living quarters of successive Dalai Lamas and their tutors. The offices of the old Tibetan government and their assembly halls are also located here. The original Potala was destroyed in the 9th century, during the breakdown of the Tubo Kingship era. It was rebuilt during the reign of the 5th Dalai Lama and completed in the late 17th century. It became known as the "Winter Palace" by the 1750's, when the 7th Dalai Lama built the Norbulingka Park, as his summer residence.
The Potala is full of elaborate art work and frescos that tell many stories. They portray religious subjects as well as the customs and traditions of Tibet. The frescos in the west hall depict the life story of the 5th Dalai Lama. One picture describes an important meeting between the 5th Dalai Lama and the Chinese Emperor Shun Zhi in 1652. It was after this meeting that the title "Dalai Lama" was bestowed on him and successive leaders of Tibet.
The Potala contains many precious works of art, including ornately decorated statues, sculptures and Tibetan painting. The topmost hall in the Potala is called "Sasong Langjie". It was built in 1679, and it contains a portrait of the Qing Emperor "Qianlong" bearing the words "A Long, Long Life to the Present Emperor" written in Han, Manchu, Mongol and Tibetan. Dalai Lamas came to pay homage to this portrait on each Tibetan New Year's Day.
The Potala has been a sacred place for hundreds of years. Thousands of pilgrims from Tibet, other parts of China and abroad come every year to pay homage. Their devotion is shown by the difficult journeys they have to make to reach their "Holy City".
After the peaceful liberation of Tibet, the Potala was listed as a cultural relic under the special protection of the state. Architecturally, it is considered to be one of the wonders of the world-admired by Chinese nationalities and foreigner's alike.
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